The spinal cord reaches everywhere in the body. Nerves are attached to the column by nerve roots. Nerve roots can become injured or pinched thus causing pain, weakness, numbness or tingling in the part of the body that corresponds with the nerve that is injured.
Herniated discs are caused by a disc rupture which then may press down on a nerve root causing pain.
Spinal Stenosis is caused by the spinal canal bones growing inward causing a pinched nerve root.
Degenerative Disc Disease is caused by the breakdown or weakening of the spinal disc which causes vertebral bones to touch. A pinched nerve will result. Tiny bone spurs may develop and press the nerve roots.